Batting deutsch

batting deutsch

Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "cotton batting" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Batting“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: batting average. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "quilt batting" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. This is critical if the batting team is facing a very skilled pitcher who, if allowed to, will take over the game with his ability to get batters to do what he wants them to do. The one-drop batsman is usually also batting deutsch for his sound technique, so as to stabilize his end in case an opener gets out. A switch hit is a shot where a batsman changes his handedness and slot machines at mystic lake casino to adopt a stance the mirror image of his traditional handedness while the bowler is running into a bowl. Among modern Major League pitchers, Chad Bradford had the closest to an underhand delivery, with his knuckles sometimes scraping the ground. In that same year, the number of strikes went from 4 to 3. Either such occurrence is very rare. A complete inning consists of each mobilbet bonus code side having a turn three casino orient express on offense. By moving forward, the batsman win10 kennwort vergessen also hoffenheim kader 2009 to intercept the ball immediately after it has pitched, thus nullifying any potentially dangerous lateral movement. This is known as a walk-off. This higher risk strategy makes the best of psv münchen limited number of overs. A runner legally touching a base is " safe " — in most situations he may not be put out.

In , a batter was out if the catcher caught the third strike; otherwise the batter got four strikes. Before , pitchers were required to deliver pitches with their hand below their hips; in that year, the rule was changed to allow shoulder-high deliveries.

Until , batters could call for either a high or low pitch, and the strike zone was either above or below the waist.

In , the rules changed, until , to allow bats to be flat on one side; beginning in , they had to be round. In , the rules were changed so that batters could no longer call for a pitch; and the strike zone was defined as from the shoulders to the knees.

In that same year, the number of strikes went from 4 to 3. In , a rule was adopted for that year only counting walks as hits, which played havoc with statistics.

In , the game schedule was adopted. In , foul bunts were made strikes, and the infield fly rule was adopted with one out. In , foul tips were made strikes, but not foul balls.

In , the first modern balk rule was adopted, as well as the modern rule for recognizing stolen bases. In , the infield fly rule was extended to apply when there were no outs.

Because of the frequent and often radical rule changes during this early period, the "modern era" is generally considered to have begun in , when the American League was also formed.

Some significant rule changes continued in the first quarter of the 20th century, but were much less frequent. In , the American League adopted the foul strike rule.

In , the sacrifice fly rule was adopted. In , cork centers were added to balls. In , the minimum distance for a home run was made feet.

After that, the rules remained virtually static for decades. In , the American League adopted the designated hitter rule—rejected to this day by the National League.

Also controversial when adopted, although more generally accepted now, was the later introduction of inter-league play. The most recent significant rule changes, banning the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing substances, have had widespread support as protecting the integrity of the game.

The use of steroids by many players over the last two decades has called into question a number of baseball records for both hitting and pitching.

Such comparisons are not possible in sports in which the rules have changed significantly over the years. The generally static nature of the rules in the modern era also allows a modern fan to easily follow an account of a game played long ago.

As a result, baseball arguably has more of a "history" than most other sports. Baseball is played between two teams with nine players in the field from the team that is not batting at that point the batting team would have one batter in play at "home plate" on the field.

On a baseball field , the game is under authority of several umpires. There are usually four umpires in major league games; up to six and as few as one may officiate depending on the league and the importance of the game.

There are three bases. The playing field is divided into three main sections:. The pitcher must have one foot on the rubber at the start of every pitch to a batter, but the pitcher may leave the mound area once the ball is released.

High school baseball plays seven innings and Little League uses six-inning games. An inning is broken up into two halves in which the away team bats in the top first half, and the home team bats in the bottom second half.

In baseball, the defense always has the ball — a fact that differentiates it from most other team sports.

The teams switch every time the defending team gets three players of the batting team out. The winner is the team with the most runs after nine innings.

If the home team is ahead after the top of the ninth, play does not continue into the bottom half. In the case of a tie, additional innings are played until one team comes out ahead at the end of an inning.

If the home team takes the lead anytime during the bottom of the ninth or of any inning thereafter, play stops and the home team is declared the winner.

This is known as a walk-off. The basic contest is always between the pitcher for the fielding team, and a batter. The pitcher throws— pitches —the ball towards home plate, where the catcher for the fielding team waits in a crouched stance to receive it.

Behind the catcher stands the home plate umpire. The catcher also usually signals the desired location of the ball within the strike zone and "sets up" behind the plate or holds his glove up in the desired location as a target.

Each pitch begins a new play , which might consist of nothing more than the pitch itself. Each half-inning, the goal of the defending team is to get three members of the other team out.

A player who is out must leave the field and wait for his next turn at bat. There are many ways to get batters and baserunners out; some of the most common are catching a batted ball in the air , tag outs , force outs , and strikeouts.

After the fielding team has put out three players from the opposing team, that half of the inning is over and the team in the field and the team at bat switch places; there is no upper limit to the number that may bat in rotation before three outs are recorded.

Going through the entire order in an inning is referred to as "batting around" and it is indicative of a high-scoring inning. A complete inning consists of each opposing side having a turn three outs on offense.

The goal of the team at bat is to score more runs than the opposition; a player may do so by batting, then becoming a baserunner , touching all the bases in order via one or more plays , and finally touching home plate.

A player may also become a baserunner by being inserted as a pinch-runner. To that end, the goal of each batter is to enable baserunners to score or to become a baserunner himself.

The batter attempts to hit the ball into fair territory — between the baselines — in such a way that the defending players cannot get them or the baserunners out.

In general, the pitcher attempts to prevent this by pitching the ball in such a way that the batter cannot hit it cleanly or, ideally, at all.

A baserunner who has successfully touched home plate without being retired called out after touching all previous bases in order scores a run.

In an enclosed field, a fair ball hit over the fence on the fly is an automatic home run , which entitles the batter and all runners to touch all the bases and score.

On a field with foul poles, a ball that hits a pole is also a home run. The squad in the field is the defensive team; they attempt to prevent the baserunners from scoring.

There are nine defensive positions, but only two have a mandatory location pitcher and catcher. The locations of the other seven fielders is not specified by the rules, except that at the moment the pitch is delivered, they must be positioned in fair territory and not in the space between the pitcher and the catcher.

These fielders often shift their positioning in response to specific batters or game situations, and they may exchange positions with one another at any time.

The nine positions most commonly used with the number scorekeepers use are: Note that, in rare cases, teams may use dramatically differing schemes, such as switching an outfielder for an infielder.

The numbering convention was established by Henry Chadwick. The reason the shortstop seems out of order has to do with the way fielders positioned themselves in the early years of the game.

Each position is weighted on the defensive spectrum in terms of difficulty. The most difficult position is catcher, while the least difficult is first base.

Designated hitter, while on the scale, is not part of the defense at all. Pitchers, while part of the active defense, are so specialized in their role that they usually make only routine plays.

The battery is composed of the pitcher , who stands on the rubber of the mound, which is also known as the pitching plate, and the catcher , who squats behind home plate.

These are the two fielders who always deal directly with the batter on every pitch, hence the term "battery", coined by Henry Chadwick and later reinforced by the implied comparison to artillery fire.

Pitchers also play defense by fielding batted balls, covering bases for a potential tag out or force out on an approaching runner , or backing up throws.

Together with the pitcher and coaches, the catcher plots game strategy by suggesting different pitches and by shifting the starting positions of the other fielders.

Catchers are also responsible for defense in the area near home plate such as dropped third strikes and wild pitches or baserunning plays, most commonly when an opposing player attempts to steal a base.

Due to the exceptional difficulty of the position, catchers are universally valued for their defensive prowess as opposed to their ability to hit.

The four infielders are the first baseman , second baseman , shortstop , and third baseman. Originally the first, second and third basemen played very near their respective bases, and the shortstop generally played "in" hence the term , covering the area between second, third, and the pitchers box, or wherever the game situation required.

When an infielder picks up a ball from the ground hit by the batter , he must throw it to the first baseman who must catch the ball and maintain contact with the base before the batter gets to it for the batter to be out.

The need to do this quickly often requires the first baseman to stretch one of his legs to touch first base while catching the ball simultaneously.

The first baseman must be able to catch the ball very well and usually wears a specially designed mitt. The first baseman fields balls hit near first base.

The first baseman also has to receive throws from the pitcher in order to tag runners out who have reached base safely. The position is less physically challenging than the other positions, but there is still a lot of skill involved.

Older players who can no longer fulfill the demands of their original positions also often become first basemen. The second baseman covers the area to the first-base side of second base and provides backup for the first baseman in bunt situations.

He also is a cut-off for the outfield. The shortstop fills the critical gap between second and third bases — where right-handed batters generally hit ground balls — and also covers second or third base and the near part of left field.

This player is also a cut-off for the outfield. Quick reaction time is also important for third basemen, as they tend to see more sharply-hit balls than do the other infielders, thus the nickname for third base as the "hot corner".

The right fielder generally has the strongest arm of all the outfielders due to the need to make throws on runners attempting to take third base.

The center fielder has more territory to cover than the corner outfielders , so this player must be quick and agile with a strong arm to throw balls in to the infield ; as with the shortstop , teams tend to emphasize defense at this position.

Also, the center fielder is considered the outfield leader, and left- and right-fielders often cede to his direction when fielding fly balls.

Of all outfielders, the left fielder often has the weakest arm, as they generally do not need to throw the ball as far in order to prevent the advance of any baserunners.

The left fielder still requires good fielding and catching skills, and tends to receive more balls than the right fielder due to the fact that right-handed hitters, who are much more common, tend to "pull" the ball into left field.

Each outfielder runs to "back up" a nearby outfielder who attempts to field a ball hit near both their positions. Outfielders also run to back up infielders on batted balls and thrown balls, including pick-off attempts from the pitcher or from the catcher.

Effective pitching is critical to a baseball team, as pitching is the key for the defensive team to retire batters and to prevent runners from getting on base.

A full game usually involves over one hundred pitches thrown by each team. However, most pitchers begin to tire before they reach this point.

In previous eras, pitchers would often throw up to four complete games all nine innings in a week. With new advances in medical research and thus a better understanding of how the human body functions and tires out, starting pitchers tend more often to throw fractions of a game typically six or seven innings, depending on their performance about every five days though a few complete games do still occur each year.

The NCAA also reports that the overall batting average has dropped from. The making of a baseball bat. The Michigan State-bound shortstop came within one home run of tying the state record as she became the West Valley League Triple Crown winner, batting.

The following drill program will give you an idea of the devices we use to enhance our batting swings over a period of time. A drill program for winning baseball.

Championship matches won by sides batting first last season: Prepare to change tack on tracks. Pull and hook shots can be played off the front or back foot, with the back foot being more typical.

A sweep is a cross-batted front foot shot played to a low bouncing ball, usually from a slow bowler , by kneeling on one knee, bringing the head down in line with the ball and swinging the bat around in a horizontal arc near the pitch as the ball arrives, sweeping it around to the leg side, typically towards square leg or fine leg.

A paddle sweep shot is a sweep shot in which the ball is deflected towards fine leg with a stationary or near-stationary bat extended horizontally towards the bowler, whereas the hard sweep shot is played towards square leg with the bat swung firmly in a horizontal arc.

Typically the sweep shot will be played to a legside delivery, but it is also possible for a batsman to sweep the ball to the leg side from outside off stump.

Attempting to sweep a full straight delivery on the stumps is generally not recommended because of the risk of lbw.

Since a batsman is free to play any shot to any type of delivery as he wishes, the above list is by no means a complete list of the strokes that batsmen choose to play.

Many unorthodox, typically high-risk, shots have been used throughout the history of the game. The advent of limited overs cricket has seen the increased use of unorthodox shots to hit the ball into gaps where there are no fielders placed.

A few unorthodox shots have gained enough popularity or notoriety to have been given their own names and entered common usage. A reverse sweep is a cross-batted sweep shot played in the opposite direction to the standard sweep, thus instead of sweeping the ball to the leg side, it is swept to the off side, towards a backward point or third man.

The batsman may also swap his hands on the bat handle to make the stroke easier to execute. The batsman may also bring his back foot to the front, therefore, making it more like a traditional sweep.

The advantage of a reverse sweep is that it effectively reverses the fielding positions and thus is very difficult to set a field to.

It is also a risky shot for the batsman as it increases the chance of lbw and also is quite easy to top edge to a fielder. Cricket coach Bob Woolmer has been credited with popularising the stroke.

With England on course for victory, Gatting attempted a reverse sweep off the first delivery bowled by Border, top-edged the ball and was caught by wicketkeeper Greg Dyer.

England subsequently lost momentum and eventually lost the match. Because of the unorthodox nature of hand and body position, it is often difficult to get a lot of power behind a reverse sweep; in many situations, the intention is to glance or cut the ball to the back leg area.

However, on rare occasions, players have been able to execute reverse sweeps for a six. Kevin Pietersen , who pioneered switch-hitting, is adept at this, but one could argue [ original research?

A slog is a powerful pull shot played over mid-wicket, usually, hit in the air in an attempt to score a six.

A shot would be described as a slog when it is typically played at a delivery that would not ordinarily be pulled.

A slog can also be described as hitting the ball to " cow corner ". This phrase is designed to imply that the batsman is unsophisticated in his strokeplay and technique by suggesting he would be more at home playing on more rudimentary cricket fields in which there may be cows grazing along the boundary edge.

A slog sweep is a slog played from the kneeling position used to sweep. Slog sweeps are usually directed over square-leg rather than to mid-wicket.

It is almost exclusively used against reasonably full-pitched balls from slow bowlers, as only then does the batsman have time to sight the length and adopt the kneeling position required for the slog sweep.

The front leg of the shot is usually placed wider outside leg stump to allow for a full swing of the bat. A upper cut is a shot played towards third man, usually hit when the ball is pitched outside the off stump with an extra bounce.

It is a dangerous shot which can edge the batsman to keeper or slips if not executed correctly. The shot is widely used in modern cricket.

The shot is advantageous in fast bouncy tracks and is seen commonly in Twenty20 cricket. A switch hit is a shot where a batsman changes his handedness and posture to adopt a stance the mirror image of his traditional handedness while the bowler is running into a bowl.

As a fielding team cannot maneuver fielders while the bowler is in his run-up, the fielding side is effectively wrong-footed with the fielders out of position.

It was subsequently used in the New Zealand series in England in when Pietersen performed the shot twice in the same over against Scott Styris on his way to making an unbeaten century.

He is also possible to bat right-handed due to his experience in doing so in youth cricket. The legality of the switch hit was questioned when first introduced but cleared by the International Cricket Council as legal.

The shot is risky because a batsman is less proficient in the other handedness and is more likely to make a mistake in the execution of his shot.

A scoop shot also known as a ramp shot, paddle scoop , Marillier shot or Dilscoop has been used by a number of first-class batsmen, the first being Dougie Marillier.

It is played to short-pitched straight balls that would traditionally be defended or, more aggressively, pulled to the leg side.

To play a scoop shot, the batsman is on the front foot and aims to get beneath the bounce of the ball and hit it directly behind the stumps, up and over the wicket-keeper.

This shot, though risky in the execution, has the advantage of being aimed at a section of the field where a fielder is rarely placed — particularly in Twenty20 and One Day International cricket where the number of outfielders is limited.

The scoop shot is a risky shot to play as the improper execution of this shot may lead to a catch being offered. The helicopter shot in cricket is the act of flicking the bat toward the leg side when facing a yorker or a fuller-length delivery and finishing the stroke with a flourish by twisting the bat in an overhead circle.

This shot, which requires excellent timing and wrist-work, is considered a new innovation in cricket and is seen as an unconventional form of batsmanship.

Traditionally, faster bowlers have used yorker-length deliveries toward the end of limited-overs matches because it is difficult to hit such balls to the boundary.

The helicopter shot is one answer to this tactic. But the shot was popularised by MS Dhoni. The fundamental aim of each batsman is to find a means of safely scoring runs against each bowler he faces.

The strategy he will decide on will incorporate a number of preconceived attacking responses to the various deliveries he may anticipate receiving, designed specifically to score runs with minimal risk of being dismissed.

The success of this strategy will be dependent upon both the accuracy of its conception and the technical ability with which it is carried out. A key aspect of the strategy of batting is the trade-off between the level of aggression trying to score and the risk involved of being dismissed.

An optimal batting strategy balances several considerations: As such, strategies vary between the three forms of international cricket, T20 , Test cricket and One Day International cricket.

As One Day International matches have a limited set of overs , batsmen try to score quickly. Doing so, batsmen should aim for a higher run rate than the one which would maximize their expected personal score.

It is optimal for batsmen to take the risk of being dismissed and being replaced by another teammate. This higher risk strategy makes the best of the limited number of overs.

Most batsmen manage to score at an average of four runs an over i. The optimal level of risk should vary depending on different factors.

It should be higher when the pitch provides good conditions for batting, making it easier to score without great risk of being dismissed.

It should increase towards the end of the innings when the number of overs left is small there is not much to lose in taking the risk of ending all out.

Research has shown that teams broadly follow these principles. A noticeable exception is when batsmen face the possibility to score a personal milestone e.

When a team goes out to bat, the best players bat first.

Batting deutsch - consider, that

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In this case, the batter is not out although the pitcher is awarded a strikeout. The catcher can try to get the batter out by tagging him with the ball or throwing the ball to first base to put him out.

On the fourth ball , it is called a walk, and the batter becomes a runner, and is entitled to advance to first base without risk of being put out, called a base on balls or a walk abbreviated BB.

In practice, neither exception is ever called unless the batter obviously tries to get hit by the pitch; even standing still in the box will virtually always be overlooked, and the batter awarded first.

In addition, if the batter swings at a pitch that hits him, it counts as a strike. Once a batter becomes a runner and reaches first base safely, he is said to be "on" that base until he attempts to advance to the next base, until he is put out, or until the half-inning ends.

In order to be safe a runner must beat the ball to the bag. When two or more runners are on the basepaths, the runner farther along is called a lead runner or a preceding runner ; any other runner is called a trailing runner or a following runner.

Runners on second or third base are considered to be in scoring position since ordinary hits, even singles, will often allow them to score.

A runner legally touching a base is " safe " — in most situations he may not be put out. Runners may attempt to advance from base to base at any time except when the ball is dead.

A runner that must attempt to advance is forced , when all previous bases are occupied and a batted ball that touches the ground is a fair ball.

The runner forced to advance toward the next base is considered "forced out" if a fielder holding the baseball touches the intended base before the baserunner arrives.

When a batted ball is hit in the air, i. The common name for this requirement is tagging up. If the runner retouches the origin base at any time after the fly ball is first touched by a fielder, he may attempt to advance to the next base or bases at his own risk.

The penalty for failing to retouch if the defensive team notices this is that the advancing runner can be put out on a live appeal in which the defensive team player with the ball touches the base from which that runner departed prematurely.

If a runner tagged up and tries to run to the next base in sequence, they are deemed out if tagged by an infielder at any point before reaching the base or the ball arrives at the base ahead of the runner.

However, if the runner is not forced to run to the next base in sequence, they are not deemed out until they are tagged.

This often leads to a runner being trapped between two or more infielders trying to tag them before reaching any base: Only one runner may occupy a base at a time; if two runners are touching a base at once, the trailing runner is in jeopardy and will be out if tagged.

However, if the trail runner reached the base having been forced there, it is the lead runner who will be out when tagged for failing to reach his force base.

Either such occurrence is very rare. Thus, after a play, at most three runners may be on the basepaths, one on each base—first, second, and third.

When three runners are on base, this is called bases loaded. Baserunners may attempt to advance, or steal a base , while the pitcher is preparing to make a pitch, while he is making a pitch, or while waiting for a return throw from the catcher after a pitch.

The pitcher, in lieu of delivering the pitch, may try to prevent this by throwing the ball to one of the infielders in order to tag the runner; if successful, it is called a pick-off.

He may also, as part of a planned sequence, throw a pitch well outside and high of the strike zone to his catcher who is waiting for it upright there, and is thus better prepared to throw out a runner trying to steal; this sequence is called a "pitchout.

An illegal attempt by the pitcher to deceive a runner, among other pitching violations, is called a balk , allowing all runners to advance one base without risk of being put out.

Another fundamental tenet of the rules of baseball is that a runner who was initially ruled out can subsequently be ruled safe, but once a runner is ruled safe he cannot be called out on the same play, unless he overruns the base.

For example, if a baserunner steals second base, beating the throw, an umpire might make the quick call of safe, but if the runner then slides beyond the base and is tagged before he can retreat to it the umpire has the right to change the call.

A runner initially called out can be subsequently ruled safe if the fielder putting the runner out drops the ball on either a tag or force play , pulls his foot off the base in the case of a force play , or otherwise illegally obstructs a runner from reaching a base that he otherwise would have reached safely.

Batters attempt to "read" pitchers through pre-game preparation by studying the tendencies of pitchers and by talking to other batters that previously faced the pitcher.

While batting, batters attempt to "read" pitches by looking for clues that the pitcher or catcher reveal. Batters can attempt to "read" the spin of a ball early in the pitch to anticipate its trajectory.

Batters also remain keenly aware of the count during their at bat. This puts pressure on the pitcher to throw a strike to avoid a walk so the batter is more likely to get an easier pitch to hit and can look for a particular pitch in a particular zone or take a riskier or bigger swing.

This gives the pitcher more freedom to try enticing the batter to swing at a pitch outside the strike zone or throwing a pitch that is harder to control e.

Thus the batter will take a more protective swing. A major strategy in batting at competitive levels of baseball is patient hitting.

An example of patient hitting is when a batter has a zero strike count, the batter will almost always look for his perfect pitch. One strike hitting is very similar to no strike hitting and the batter usually is still looking for a good pitch to hit.

Two strike hitting, the strategy is changed where the batter will protect the plate by fouling off pitches until the batter is able to find a pitch to hit.

This style of hitting allows the hitter to look for a good pitch to hit, and makes the pitcher throw more pitches so that he will tire out faster.

This is critical if the batting team is facing a very skilled pitcher who, if allowed to, will take over the game with his ability to get batters to do what he wants them to do.

In general, base running is a tactical part of the game requiring good judgment by runners and their coaches to assess the risk in attempting to advance.

During tag plays, a good slide can affect the outcome of the play. Managers will sometimes simultaneously send a runner and require the batter to swing a hit-and-run play in an attempt to advance runners.

On a hit-and-run play the batter will often try to hit to the opposite field the opposite of the natural tendency for the right-handed hitter to pull the ball to left field and vice versa.

Hitting to the opposite field will likely find an opening in the infield vacated by the fielder covering second base. This is because coverage of second base against a steal is best achieved by whichever fielder is closer to second base, the shortstop or the second baseman; and such positioning is aimed at defending against the natural tendency of the hitter.

Typically, the first and second batters are contact hitters , who try to make contact with the ball to put it in play, and then run fast to reach base.

The third batter is generally the best all-around hitter on the team, who tries to help baserunners to score runs, and if possible to reach base himself.

The fourth batter is the cleanup hitter , and is often a power hitter , who tries to hit home runs. The fifth and sixth batters often help baserunners to score runs.

They often "sacrifice" his at-bat. This can be done by bunting the ball, hitting a fly ball far enough in the air that a baserunner can advance after the catch, or simply making contact with the ball on a hit-and-run play.

During the course of play many offensive and defensive players run close to each other, and during tag plays, the defensive player must touch the offensive player.

Although baseball is considered a non-contact sport, a runner may be allowed to make potentially dangerous contact with a fielder as part of an attempt to reach base, unless that fielder is fielding a batted ball.

Noted exceptions to the dangerous contact rule are found throughout amateur competitions, including youth leagues, high school, and college baseball.

A good slide is often more advantageous than such contact, and "malicious" contact by runners is typically prohibited as offensive interference. Since the catcher is seen symbolically and literally as the last line of defense, it seems natural that the more physical play happens here.

An inning consists of each team having one turn in the field and one turn to hit, with the visiting team batting before the home team.

A standard game lasts nine innings, although some leagues such as high school baseball and Little League play fewer. Most high school games last seven innings, and Little League has six innings.

A single game between two teams during NCAA competition is nine innings. A doubleheader in NCAA competition may be two seven inning games, two nine inning games, or one nine inning game and one seven inning game between the same teams.

The team with the most runs at the end of the game wins. If the home team is ahead when the middle of the last inning is reached, it is declared the winner, and the last half-inning is not played.

If the home team is trailing or tied in the last scheduled inning or in an extra inning, see below and they score to take the lead, the game ends as soon as the winning run touches home plate; however, if the last batter hits a home run to win the game, he and any runners on base are all permitted to score.

If both teams have scored the same number of runs at the end of a regular-length game, a tie is avoided by the addition of extra innings. As many innings as necessary are played until one team has the lead at the end of an inning.

Thus, the home team always has a chance to respond if the visiting team scores in the top half of the inning; this gives the home team a small tactical advantage.

In theory, a baseball game could go on forever; in practice, however, they eventually end. In addition to that rule, a game might theoretically end if both the home and away team were to run out of players to substitute see Substitutions, below.

The game, called on account of darkness, ended in a tie. In Major League Baseball, games end with tie scores only in rare cases when conditions make it impossible to continue play.

A tie game does not count as a game in the standings — a rule change made all tie games suspended unless and until not needed for the sake of determining playoff teams, and no longer replayed; however, though undecided, and not factored in the championship standings and the playoff reckoning, a tie game goes on the record and player and team statistics from it are counted.

Inclement weather may also shorten games, but at least five innings must be played for the game to be considered official; four-and-a-half innings are enough if the home team is ahead.

Previously, curfews and the absence of adequate lighting caused more ties and shortened games — now, games interrupted from ending in such circumstances are, at least initially, suspended.

Since only regular season games have a 3-hour, minute time limit. Some youth or amateur leagues will end a game early if one team is ahead by ten or more runs, a practice officially known as the "runs ahead rule" sometimes referred to as a " mercy rule " or "slaughter rule".

Rarely, a game can also be won or lost by forfeit. There is a short break between each half-inning during which the new defensive team takes the field and the pitcher warms up.

An existing pitcher is permitted five warm-up pitches and a new pitcher is permitted eight warm-up pitches. The starting pitcher is permitted eight warm-up pitches to begin the game.

Traditionally, the break between the top half and the bottom half of the seventh inning is known as the seventh-inning stretch. Each team is allowed to substitute for any player at any time the ball is dead.

A batter who replaces another batter is referred to as a pinch hitter ; similarly, a pinch runner may be used as a replacement for a baserunner.

Any player who replaces another player between innings, or while the team is in the field, is known as a "defensive replacement".

A replacement pitcher is called a relief pitcher. Any replacement is a permanent substitution; the replaced player may not return to the game under any circumstances.

Thus, a pitcher that has been removed from the game and replaced by a relief pitcher cannot return to pitch later in the game, and any batter who is replaced by a pinch-hitter cannot take the field in the following inning or even bat again if his turn comes up again in the same inning.

Note however, that two players can switch defensive positions at any time, and both can still stay in the game—because neither has actually been removed from the game.

This means that in at least one case, a pitcher switched positions with an outfielder in the middle of the game, with the outfielder becoming a relief pitcher This meant that in practical terms, the starting pitcher was relieved by another pitcher, but then came back to relieve the relief pitcher.

This game took place on September 28, This "permanent substitution" rule is in contrast to some other sports, such as basketball, hockey and American football, that practice "free substitution".

In some cases, if the defensive manager responds to the entrance of a pinch-hitter by bringing in a new pitcher, the pinch-hitter may be replaced by another pinch-hitter without having even come to the plate, in which case the first pinch-hitter is considered to have entered the game and is ineligible to do so later.

However, the defensive manager may not replace a pitcher who has not pitched to at least one batter, except in case of injury.

The reentry of a replaced player into the game is a violation of the permanent substitution rule; if the defense has more than nine players on the field at any time, the umpire must determine who is the tenth player, and that player is ejected from the game.

Many amateur leagues allow a starting player who was removed to return to the game in the same position in the batting order under a re-entry rule.

Youth leagues often allow free and open substitution to encourage player participation. Pitching is a specialized skill, particularly in the collegiate and professional ranks; so most pitchers are relatively poor hitters, or, those who were skilled batsmen are simply unable to adequately hone their hitting skills to be comparable to everyday position players.

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References in classic literature? He sought for beauty consciously, and he remembered how even as a boy he had taken pleasure in the Gothic cathedral as one saw it from the precincts; he went there and looked at the massive pile, gray under the cloudy sky, with the central tower that rose like the praise of men to their God; but the boys were batting at the nets, and they were lissom and strong and active; he could not help hearing their shouts and laughter.

The NCAA also reports that the overall batting average has dropped from. The making of a baseball bat. The Michigan State-bound shortstop came within one home run of tying the state record as she became the West Valley League Triple Crown winner, batting.

Many unorthodox, typically high-risk, shots have been used throughout the history of the game. The advent of limited overs cricket has seen the increased use of unorthodox shots to hit the ball into gaps where there are no fielders placed.

A few unorthodox shots have gained enough popularity or notoriety to have been given their own names and entered common usage. A reverse sweep is a cross-batted sweep shot played in the opposite direction to the standard sweep, thus instead of sweeping the ball to the leg side, it is swept to the off side, towards a backward point or third man.

The batsman may also swap his hands on the bat handle to make the stroke easier to execute. The batsman may also bring his back foot to the front, therefore, making it more like a traditional sweep.

The advantage of a reverse sweep is that it effectively reverses the fielding positions and thus is very difficult to set a field to. It is also a risky shot for the batsman as it increases the chance of lbw and also is quite easy to top edge to a fielder.

Cricket coach Bob Woolmer has been credited with popularising the stroke. With England on course for victory, Gatting attempted a reverse sweep off the first delivery bowled by Border, top-edged the ball and was caught by wicketkeeper Greg Dyer.

England subsequently lost momentum and eventually lost the match. Because of the unorthodox nature of hand and body position, it is often difficult to get a lot of power behind a reverse sweep; in many situations, the intention is to glance or cut the ball to the back leg area.

However, on rare occasions, players have been able to execute reverse sweeps for a six. Kevin Pietersen , who pioneered switch-hitting, is adept at this, but one could argue [ original research?

A slog is a powerful pull shot played over mid-wicket, usually, hit in the air in an attempt to score a six. A shot would be described as a slog when it is typically played at a delivery that would not ordinarily be pulled.

A slog can also be described as hitting the ball to " cow corner ". This phrase is designed to imply that the batsman is unsophisticated in his strokeplay and technique by suggesting he would be more at home playing on more rudimentary cricket fields in which there may be cows grazing along the boundary edge.

A slog sweep is a slog played from the kneeling position used to sweep. Slog sweeps are usually directed over square-leg rather than to mid-wicket.

It is almost exclusively used against reasonably full-pitched balls from slow bowlers, as only then does the batsman have time to sight the length and adopt the kneeling position required for the slog sweep.

The front leg of the shot is usually placed wider outside leg stump to allow for a full swing of the bat. A upper cut is a shot played towards third man, usually hit when the ball is pitched outside the off stump with an extra bounce.

It is a dangerous shot which can edge the batsman to keeper or slips if not executed correctly. The shot is widely used in modern cricket.

The shot is advantageous in fast bouncy tracks and is seen commonly in Twenty20 cricket. A switch hit is a shot where a batsman changes his handedness and posture to adopt a stance the mirror image of his traditional handedness while the bowler is running into a bowl.

As a fielding team cannot maneuver fielders while the bowler is in his run-up, the fielding side is effectively wrong-footed with the fielders out of position.

It was subsequently used in the New Zealand series in England in when Pietersen performed the shot twice in the same over against Scott Styris on his way to making an unbeaten century.

He is also possible to bat right-handed due to his experience in doing so in youth cricket. The legality of the switch hit was questioned when first introduced but cleared by the International Cricket Council as legal.

The shot is risky because a batsman is less proficient in the other handedness and is more likely to make a mistake in the execution of his shot.

A scoop shot also known as a ramp shot, paddle scoop , Marillier shot or Dilscoop has been used by a number of first-class batsmen, the first being Dougie Marillier.

It is played to short-pitched straight balls that would traditionally be defended or, more aggressively, pulled to the leg side.

To play a scoop shot, the batsman is on the front foot and aims to get beneath the bounce of the ball and hit it directly behind the stumps, up and over the wicket-keeper.

This shot, though risky in the execution, has the advantage of being aimed at a section of the field where a fielder is rarely placed — particularly in Twenty20 and One Day International cricket where the number of outfielders is limited.

The scoop shot is a risky shot to play as the improper execution of this shot may lead to a catch being offered.

The helicopter shot in cricket is the act of flicking the bat toward the leg side when facing a yorker or a fuller-length delivery and finishing the stroke with a flourish by twisting the bat in an overhead circle.

This shot, which requires excellent timing and wrist-work, is considered a new innovation in cricket and is seen as an unconventional form of batsmanship.

Traditionally, faster bowlers have used yorker-length deliveries toward the end of limited-overs matches because it is difficult to hit such balls to the boundary.

The helicopter shot is one answer to this tactic. But the shot was popularised by MS Dhoni. The fundamental aim of each batsman is to find a means of safely scoring runs against each bowler he faces.

The strategy he will decide on will incorporate a number of preconceived attacking responses to the various deliveries he may anticipate receiving, designed specifically to score runs with minimal risk of being dismissed.

The success of this strategy will be dependent upon both the accuracy of its conception and the technical ability with which it is carried out.

A key aspect of the strategy of batting is the trade-off between the level of aggression trying to score and the risk involved of being dismissed.

An optimal batting strategy balances several considerations: As such, strategies vary between the three forms of international cricket, T20 , Test cricket and One Day International cricket.

As One Day International matches have a limited set of overs , batsmen try to score quickly. Doing so, batsmen should aim for a higher run rate than the one which would maximize their expected personal score.

It is optimal for batsmen to take the risk of being dismissed and being replaced by another teammate. This higher risk strategy makes the best of the limited number of overs.

Most batsmen manage to score at an average of four runs an over i. The optimal level of risk should vary depending on different factors.

It should be higher when the pitch provides good conditions for batting, making it easier to score without great risk of being dismissed.

It should increase towards the end of the innings when the number of overs left is small there is not much to lose in taking the risk of ending all out.

Research has shown that teams broadly follow these principles. A noticeable exception is when batsmen face the possibility to score a personal milestone e.

When a team goes out to bat, the best players bat first. The first three batsmen number 1, 2, 3 are known as the top order ; the next four numbers 4, 5, 6 and possibly 7 form the middle order , and the last four numbers 8, 9, 10 and 11 are the lower order or tail.

The specialist batsmen of a team usually bat near the top of the order, so as to score more runs. The openers or opening batsmen are the first two batsmen to take the crease.

They are not necessarily the best batsmen, but are expected to negotiate the new ball and not lose wickets until the shine on the ball is considerably diminished a hard and shiny ball bounces and swings more and is more difficult for the batsmen to face.

In addition, they are supposed to play quick innings more runs in fewer balls , reflecting the fact that the fielding side is subject to restrictions on the placement of fielders in the first 15 overs which makes it easier to score runs.

In a recent amendment [1] to the rules of ODI cricket, fielding captains are given mandatory fielding restrictions for the first 10 overs and then two chunks of 5 overs each, also known as power-play overs, which they may impose at any stage of their choice within the stipulated 50 overs.

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